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How does fingerprint scanner work?

  • Author:HFSecurity
  • Release on :2019-07-25
Hello, everyone, I am HFSecurity's  encyclopedia, when it comes to the human body feature recognition, friends will think of what applications, is full of black technology iris recognition, or the latest face recognition, among which the most widely used, but also as a fingerprint identification.

Have you ever looked at your hands?When we open our hands, the first thing we see is these weird patterns, and behind these patterns are the body features that we are born with that are almost impossible to repeat.



In fact, we seem to be more concerned with questions about fingerprints.For example, how fingerprints come from, what is the purpose of growing fingerprints, unlock the phone fingerprint security, fingerprint can be erased and so on a series of questions.Brother yunyun today with you to understand the existence of this magic - fingerprints.

We have always thought that the fingerprint is some grooves on the finger, I believe there are a lot of friends also understand it like this!But that's not true. Fingerprints aren't grooves.



Scientific data show that when an embryonic infant is five to six weeks old, the important tissue of the hand begins to develop. At this time, there is really no fingerprint. In the later development, some epidermal tissue is gradually curved, which reaches about 25 weeks, and then the fingerprint will be fully formed and will stay with us for the rest of our lives.

It's worth noting that fingerprints only get thicker and bigger in the days that follow, and the patterns don't change.Even after a trauma, fingerprints can grow back as long as the dermis is not damaged.



If we look at yourself and others fingerprints, probably can find there are three kinds of different shapes, respectively is "bucket shape" basket "" '" bow" this shape of the distribution and the region has a great relationship, for example, the fingerprint of the Chinese, Japanese, bucket shape grain and basket shape grain appearance rate is roughly equal, a total of more than 90% of the total;In European fingerprints, the occurrence rate of dustpan pattern is higher;In the United States, the bow pattern is more common.

Even identical twins can share identical DNA, but the fingerprint repeats at a rate of one in 15 billion, making it a probabilistic impossibility.Even the identical twins.

Why do people have fingerprints?You have to say it's for identification.Yes, it does.As early as 2,500 years ago in the late warring states period, bamboo slips unearthed mentioned the use of fingerprints to judge cases.

Fingerprints have been around for all of our lives, even in other animals.That makes the creation of fingerprints a scientific question.



There are several different academic hypotheses about this question.One is that the grooving pattern is designed to reduce friction and make the skin more prone to stretching and deformation, which can prevent damage to the skin.Just like if you pull a crumpled piece of paper and a flat piece of paper, of course a crumpled piece of paper can be stretched.


Another theory is that ancient humans had no means to hold water, so they used their hands to hold water.Even now, scientists have been unable to come up with a plausible hypothesis. Why humans have fingerprints may remain a mystery forever.



Even if we don't know what makes fingerprints, that doesn't stop us from using their unique properties to authenticate ourselves.So the question is, how do these devices actually identify fingerprints?

A fingerprint with a green glow


We commonly called the "optical fingerprint identification system" is the use of light reflection imaging fingerprint identification, this type of fingerprint module for the use of the environment temperature and humidity have certain requirements

The fingerprint button on the phone



The tiny button on the phone is actually a capacitive fingerprint module, which USES an electric field formed by silicon wafer and conductive subcutaneous electric electrolyte. The fluctuation of fingerprint will lead to different changes in the pressure difference between the two, so that accurate fingerprint determination can be achieved.This method has strong adaptability and no special requirements for the use environment. Meanwhile, the whole component volume is relatively small, so this technology has been well promoted in the mobile phone terminal.

Fingerprint collectors for the public security system



When we apply for id card and reapply for id card, we need to input the fingerprint. This input device is the biological radiofrequency fingerprint identification system. The precision of this device is very high.It emits a tiny amount of radio frequency signal through the sensor itself, which penetrates the skin layer of the finger to detect the patterns in the inner layer to obtain the best fingerprint image.

The identification principle of fingerprint sensor only responds to people's dermal skin, fundamentally eliminating the problem of artificial fingerprint, wide temperature zone: suitable for very cold or very hot areas.Therefore, rf technology is currently the most reliable and powerful solution.

But no matter how it's collected, it's not a picture of a fingerprint, it's a bunch of code that's calculated using a special algorithm, sort of like a fingerprint, and then you put it together into a corresponding bar code, and if you compare it backwards.

1. Fingerprint collection.When collecting fingerprints for the first time, it is often necessary to input the same finger in an all-round way, which is to record the whole fingerprint completely, because fingerprint fragments cannot be used as identification evidence.


2. Fingerprint evaluation.The whole information is strictly judged, if unqualified is to be re-collected.


3. Feature extraction.This step is quite a critical step, which requires powerful algorithm software to support. The collected information of fingerprint endpoint, bifurcation point, bifurcation point, isolated point, ring point, short grain and so on can be converted mathematically and saved in the database.


4. Fingerprint matching.If the fingerprint identified again has the above information, the identification information can be determined and the operation can be performed.


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